USA


  Bowl of Pottage


America has traded her birth_right for a bowl of pottage


I have always said to know where we are going/headed we have got to know where we have been, or we are destined to repeat the past,


Our legal form of government is a Constitutional Republic.

Our nation for the most part has lost it's way,

The term republic had a significant meaning for our founding fathers and all the early Americans. It meant a lot more than just a representative government which was a form of government in contrast to democracy where the majority dictated laws and rights.

Getting rid of the English monarchy was what the Revolution was really all about, so a monarchy or democratic form of government was out of the question.

A Republic required a strict limitation of government power, Which would be defined and delegated by the people, with all public officials being bound by their oath of office to uphold the Constitution.

"America is great because she is good. If America ceases to be good, America will cease to be great Alexis de Tocqueville

The history contained here was provided for the most part by the USA history archives.

1>
From England


From out of England came the Puritan forces, they were gaining power in England, and the political back ground was a force to be reckoned with.


There were threats of a civil war that was being heard {they were viewed as radicals}

The first of the British colonies to take hold in North America was Jamestown. On the basis of a charter which King James I granted to the Virginia (or London) company, a group of about 100 men set out for the Chesapeake Bay in 1607

In 1607 a small group of Separatists -- a radical sect of Puritans who did not believe the Established Church could ever be reformed -- departed for Leyden, Holland, where the Dutch granted them asylum. However, the Calvinist Dutch restricted them mainly to low-paid laboring jobs. Some members of the congregation grew dissatisfied with this discrimination and resolved to emigrate to the New World.

In 1620, a group of Leyden Puritans secured a land patent from the Virginia Company. Numbering 101, they set out for Virginia on the Mayflower. A storm sent them far north and they landed in New England on Cape Cod. Believing themselves outside the jurisdiction of any organized government, the men drafted a formal agreement to abide by "just and equal laws" drafted by leaders of their own choosing. This was the Mayflower Compact.

A new wave of immigrants arrived on the shores of Massachusetts Bay in 1630 bearing a grant from King Charles I to establish a colony. Many of them were Puritans whose religious practices were increasingly prohibited in England. Their leader, John Winthrop, urged them to create a "city upon a hill" in the New World -- a place where they would live in strict accordance with their religious beliefs and set an example for all of Christendom.

Orthodox Puritans, seeking better lands and opportunities, soon began leaving Massachusetts Bay Colony. News of the fertility of the Connecticut River Valley, for instance, attracted the interest of farmers having a difficult time with poor land. By the early 1630s, many were ready to brave the danger of Indian attack to obtain level ground and deep, rich soil. These new communities often eliminated church membership as a prerequisite for voting, thereby extending the franchise to ever larger numbers of men.

In the mid-17th century, the English were too distracted by their Civil War (1642-1649) and Oliver Cromwell's Puritan Commonwealth to pursue an effective colonial policy. After the restoration of Charles II and the Stuart dynasty in 1660, England had more opportunity to attend to colonial administration. Even then, however, it was inefficient and lacked a coherent plan. The colonies were left largely to their own devices.

When news of the Glorious Revolution (1688-1689), which deposed James II in England, reached Boston, the population rebelled and imprisoned Andros. Under a new charter, Massachusetts and Plymouth were united for the first time in 1691 as the royal colony of Massachusetts Bay. The other New England colonies quickly reinstalled their previous governments

The English Bill of Rights and the Toleration Act of 1689 affirmed freedom of worship for Christians in the colonies as well as in England and enforced limits on the Crown. Equally important, John Locke's Second Treatise on Government (1690), the Glorious Revolution's major theoretical justification, set forth a theory of government based not on divine right but on contract. It contended that the people, endowed with natural rights of life, liberty, and property, had the right to rebel when governments violated their rights.

Most settlers who came to America in the 17th century were English, but there were also Dutch, Swedes, and Germans in the middle region, a few French Huguenots in South Carolina and elsewhere, slaves from Africa, primarily in the South, and a scattering of Spaniards, Italians, and Portuguese throughout the colonies. After 1680 England ceased to be the chief source of immigration, supplanted by Scots and "Scots-Irish" (Protestants from Northern Ireland). In addition, tens of thousands of refugees fled northwestern Europe to escape war, oppression, and absentee-landlordism. By 1690 the American population had risen to a quarter of a million. From then on, it doubled every 25 years until, in 1775, it numbered more than 2.5 million. Although families occasionally moved from one colony to another, distinctions between individual colonies were marked. They were even more so among the three regional groupings of colonies.

By the early 18th century, almost all the colonies had been brought under the direct jurisdiction of the British Crown, but under the rules established by the Glorious Revolution. Colonial governors sought to exercise powers that the king had lost in England, but the colonial assemblies, aware of events there, attempted to assert their "rights" and "liberties." Their leverage rested on two significant powers similar to those held by the English Parliament: the right to vote on taxes and expenditures, and the right to initiate legislation rather than merely react to proposals of the governor.

An armed clash took place in 1754 at Fort Duquesne, the site where Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is now located, between a band of French regulars and Virginia militiamen under the command of 22-year-old George Washington, a Virginia planter and surveyor. The British government attempted to deal with the conflict by calling a meeting of representatives from New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and the New England colonies. From June 19 to July 10, 1754, the Albany Congress, as it came to be known, met with the Iroquois in Albany, New York, in order to improve relations with them and secure their loyalty to the British.

"The Revolution was effected before the war commenced. The Revolution was in the hearts and minds of the people." -- Former President John Adams, 1818 In October 1642, war between the King's army and the Puritan forces had begun.


The colonists stood their ground and fought for what they believed they deserved. To be free! Free from England's rule, free from their taxes, They settled in America and fought for their freedom, they gave the ultimate sacrifice so we could build upon their dreams, they created their own form of government, they staked their lives upon their signatures to form the Constitution and the Bill of rights.


We are a republic, a free form of government. But as Benjamin Franklin stated, when ask the question, what did you get for us, A Republic if you can keep it .



2>
The New Nation


THE REVOLUTION BEGINS General Thomas Gage, an amiable English gentleman with an American-born wife, commanded the garrison at Boston, where political activity had almost wholly replaced trade. Gage's main duty in the colonies had been to enforce the Coercive Acts. When news reached him that the Massachusetts colonists were collecting powder and military stores at the town of Concord, 32 kilometers away, Gage sent a strong detail to confiscate these munitions.

After a night of marching, the British troops reached the village of Lexington on April 19, 1775, and saw a grim band of 77 Minutemen -- so named because they were said to be ready to fight in a minute -- through the early morning mist. The Minutemen intended only a silent protest, but Marine Major John Pitcairn, the leader of the British troops, yelled, "Disperse, you damned rebels! You dogs, run!" The leader of the Minutemen, Captain John Parker, told his troops not to fire unless fired at first. The Americans were withdrawing when someone fired a shot, which led the British troops to fire at the Minutemen. The British then charged with bayonets, leaving eight dead and 10 wounded. In the often-quoted phrase of 19th century poet Ralph Waldo Emerson, this was "the shot heard round the world."

The British pushed on to Concord. The Americans had taken away most of the munitions, but they destroyed whatever was left. In the meantime, American forces in the countryside had mobilized to harass the British on their long return to Boston. All along the road, behind stone walls, hillocks, and houses, militiamen from "every Middlesex village and farm" made targets of the bright red coats of the British soldiers. By the time Gage's weary detachment stumbled into Boston, it had suffered more than 250 killed and wounded. The Americans lost 93 men.

The Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on May 10. The Congress voted to go to war, inducting the colonial militias into continental service. It appointed Colonel George Washington of Virginia as their commander-in-chief on June 15. Within two days, the Americans had incurred high casualties at Bunker Hill just outside Boston. Congress also ordered American expeditions to march northward into Canada by fall. Capturing Montreal, they failed in a winter assault on Quebec, and eventually retreated to New York.

Despite the outbreak of armed conflict, the idea of complete separation from England was still repugnant to many members of the Continental Congress. In July, it adopted the Olive Branch Petition, begging the king to prevent further hostile actions until some sort of agreement could be worked out. King George rejected it; instead, on August 23, 1775, he issued a proclamation declaring the colonies to be in a state of rebellion.

Britain had expected the Southern colonies to remain loyal, in part because of their reliance on slavery. Many in the Southern colonies feared that a rebellion against the mother country would also trigger a slave uprising. In November 1775, Lord Dunmore, the governor of Virginia, tried to capitalize on that fear by offering freedom to all slaves who would fight for the British. Instead, his proclamation drove to the rebel side many Virginians who would otherwise have remained Loyalist.

The governor of North Carolina, Josiah Martin, also urged North Carolinians to remain loyal to the Crown. When 1,500 men answered Martin's call, they were defeated by revolutionary armies before British troops could arrive to help.

British warships continued down the coast to Charleston, South Carolina, and opened fire on the city in early June 1776. But South Carolinians had time to prepare, and repulsed the British by the end of the month. They would not return South for more than two years.

COMMON SENSE AND INDEPENDENCE

In January 1776, Thomas Paine, a radical political theorist and writer who had come to America from England in 1774, published a 50-page pamphlet, Common Sense. Within three months, it sold 100,000 copies. Paine attacked the idea of a hereditary monarchy, declaring that one honest man was worth more to society than "all the crowned ruffians that ever lived." He presented the alternatives -- continued submission to a tyrannical king and an outworn government, or liberty and happiness as a self sufficient, independent republic. Circulated throughout the colonies, Common Sense helped to crystallize a decision for separation.

There still remained the task, however, of gaining each colony's approval of a formal declaration. On June 7, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia introduced a resolution in the Second Continental Congress, declaring, "That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states. ..." Immediately, a committee of five, headed by Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, was appointed to draft a document for a vote.

Largely Jefferson's work, the Declaration of Independence, adopted July 4, 1776, not only announced the birth of a new nation, but also set forth a philosophy of human freedom that would become a dynamic force throughout the entire world. The Declaration drew upon French and English Enlightenment political philosophy, but one influence in particular stands out: John Locke's Second Treatise on Government. Locke took conceptions of the traditional rights of Englishmen and universalized them into the natural rights of all humankind. The Declaration's familiar opening passage echoes Locke's social contract theory of government:

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. -- That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, -- That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

Jefferson linked Locke's principles directly to the situation in the colonies. To fight for American independence was to fight for a government based on popular consent in place of a government by a king who had "combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws. ..." Only a government based on popular consent could secure natural rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Thus, to fight for American independence was to fight on behalf of one's own natural rights.

DEFEATS AND VICTORIES

Although the Americans suffered severe setbacks for months after independence was declared, their tenacity and perseverance eventually paid off. During August 1776, in the Battle of Long Island in New York, Washington's position became untenable, and he executed a masterly retreat in small boats from Brooklyn to the Manhattan shore. British General William Howe twice hesitated and allowed the Americans to escape. By November, however, Howe had captured Fort Washington on Manhattan Island. New York City would remain under British control until the end of the war.

That December, Washington's forces were near collapse, as supplies and promised aid failed to materialize. Howe again missed his chance to crush the Americans by deciding to wait until spring to resume fighting. On Christmas Day, December 25, 1776, Washington crossed the Delaware River, north of Trenton, New Jersey. In the early-morning hours of December 26, his troops surprised the British garrison there, taking more than 900 prisoners. A week later, on January 3, 1777, Washington attacked the British at Princeton, regaining most of the territory formally occupied by the British. The victories at Trenton and Princeton revived flagging American spirits.

In September 1777, however, Howe defeated the American army at Brandywine in Pennsylvania and occupied Philadelphia, forcing the Continental Congress to flee. Washington had to endure the bitterly cold winter of 1777-1778 at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, lacking adequate food, clothing, and supplies. Farmers and merchants exchanged their goods for British gold and silver rather than for dubious paper money issued by the Continental Congress and the states.

Valley Forge was the lowest ebb for Washington's Continental Army, but elsewhere 1777 proved to be the turning point in the war. British General John Burgoyne, moving south from Canada, attempted to invade New York and New England via Lake Champlain and the Hudson River. He had too much heavy equipment to negotiate the wooded and marshy terrain. On August 6, at Oriskany, New York, a band of Loyalists and Native Americans under Burgoyne's command ran into a mobile and seasoned American force that managed to halt their advance. A few days later at Bennington, Vermont, more of Burgoyne's forces, seeking much-needed supplies, were pushed back by American troops.

Moving to the west side of the Hudson River, Burgoyne's army advanced on Albany. The Americans were waiting for him. Led by Benedict Arnold -- who would later betray the Americans at West Point, New York -- the colonials twice repulsed the British. Having by this time incurred heavy losses, Burgoyne fell back to Saratoga, New York, where a vastly superior American force under General Horatio Gates surrounded the British troops. On October 17, 1777, Burgoyne surrendered his entire army -- six generals, 300 other officers, and 5,500 enlisted personnel.

FRANCO-AMERICAN ALLIANCE

In France, enthusiasm for the American cause was high: The French intellectual world was itself stirring against feudalism and privilege. However, the Crown lent its support to the colonies for geopolitical rather than ideological reasons: The French government had been eager for reprisal against Britain ever since France's defeat in 1763. To further the American cause, Benjamin Franklin was sent to Paris in 1776. His wit, guile, and intellect soon made their presence felt in the French capital, and played a major role in winning French assistance.

France began providing aid to the colonies in May 1776, when it sent 14 ships with war supplies to America. In fact, most of the gunpowder used by the American armies came from France. After Britain's defeat at Saratoga, France saw an opportunity to seriously weaken its ancient enemy and restore the balance of power that had been upset by the Seven Years' War (called the French and Indian War in the American colonies). On February 6, 1778, the colonies and France signed a Treaty of Amity and Commerce, in which France recognized the United States and offered trade concessions. They also signed a Treaty of Alliance, which stipulated that if France entered the war, neither country would lay down its arms until the colonies won their independence, that neither would conclude peace with Britain without the consent of the other, and that each guaranteed the other's possessions in America. This was the only bilateral defense treaty signed by the United States or its predecessors until 1949.

The Franco-American alliance soon broadened the conflict. In June 1778 British ships fired on French vessels, and the two countries went to war. In 1779 Spain, hoping to reacquire territories taken by Britain in the Seven Years' War, entered the conflict on the side of France, but not as an ally of the Americans. In 1780 Britain declared war on the Dutch, who had continued to trade with the Americans. The combination of these European powers, with France in the lead, was a far greater threat to Britain than the American colonies standing alone.

THE BRITISH MOVE SOUTH

With the French now involved, the British, still believing that most Southerners were Loyalists, stepped up their efforts in the Southern colonies. A campaign began in late 1778, with the capture of Savannah, Georgia. Shortly thereafter, British troops and naval forces converged on Charleston, South Carolina, the principal Southern port. They managed to bottle up American forces on the Charleston peninsula. On May 12, 1780, General Benjamin Lincoln surrendered the city and its 5,000 troops, in the greatest American defeat of the war.

But the reversal in fortune only emboldened the American rebels. South Carolinians began roaming the countryside, attacking British supply lines. In July, American General Horatio Gates, who had assembled a replacement force of untrained militiamen, rushed to Camden, South Carolina, to confront British forces led by General Charles Cornwallis. But Gates's makeshift army panicked and ran when confronted by the British regulars. Cornwallis's troops met the Americans several more times, but the most significant battle took place at Cowpens, South Carolina, in early 1781, where the Americans soundly defeated the British. After an exhausting but unproductive chase through North Carolina, Cornwallis set his sights on Virginia. VICTORY AND INDEPENDENCE

In July 1780 France's King Louis XVI had sent to America an expeditionary force of 6,000 men under the Comte Jean de Rochambeau. In addition, the French fleet harassed British shipping and blocked reinforcement and resupply of British forces in Virginia. French and American armies and navies, totaling 18,000 men, parried with Cornwallis all through the summer and into the fall. Finally, on October 19, 1781, after being trapped at Yorktown near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, Cornwallis surrendered his army of 8,000 British soldiers.

Although Cornwallis's defeat did not immediately end the war -- which would drag on inconclusively for almost two more years -- a new British government decided to pursue peace negotiations in Paris in early 1782, with the American side represented by Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay. On April 15, 1783, Congress approved the final treaty. Signed on September 3, the Treaty of Paris acknowledged the independence, freedom, and sovereignty of the 13 former colonies, now states. The new United States stretched west to the Mississippi River, north to Canada, and south to Florida, which was returned to Spain. The fledgling colonies that Richard Henry Lee had spoken of more than seven years before had finally become "free and independent states." The task of knitting together a nation remained. The dawn of a new promise was upon them which prompted them to reflect upon England on the past that prepared for the future.


Their new nation, was to be divinely blessed, and had much to be thankful for, God had fulfilled His promises to Abraham and his descendants.


If God could permit spiritual freedom, government certainly ought to permit the political freedom that allows one to pursue life's dreams and assume one's responsibilities.


If man can achieve spiritual redemption through grace, which allows him to use the released spiritual energy to pursue man's highest and noblest goals, so should man's mind, body, and property be freed from the burdens of unchecked government authority.


The Founders were confident that this would release the creative human energy required to produce the goods and services that would improve the living standards of all mankind.


No doubts were cast as to where rights came from. They came from the Creator, and if government could not grant rights to individuals, it surely should not be able to take them away.



3>
Our New Republic


Federalism, the binding together loosely of the several states, would serve to prevent the concentration of power in a central government and was a crucial element in the new Republic.


The authors of the Constitution wrote strict limits on the national government and strove to protect the rights and powers of the states and the people.


By dividing and keeping separate the legislative, executive, and the judiciary branches, provided the checks and balances thought needed to preserve the Republic the Constitution created and the best way to preserve individual liberty.


The American Revolutionaries clearly chose liberty over security


Economic needs or desires were not the driving force behind the early American patriotic effort.


Our constitutional Republic, according to our Founders, should above all else protect the rights of the minority against the abuses of an authoritarian majority. They feared democracy as much as monarchy and demanded a weak executive, a restrained court, and a handicapped legislature.



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Your Government today


We are all witnessing an effort by our government to develop a national ID card, which includes a medical data bank, a work data bank, being labeled as "Know Your Customer" regulations on banking activities, and a National Security Agency with an all-pervasive telephone snooping system called Echelon, and other programs waiting in the wings. There are good reasons to understand the ramifications of the many technological advancements we have seen over the century to make sure that the good technology is not used by the government to do bad things. But then again aren't we a republic form of government, isn't that what they call it? Or are they calling it something else.


Government officials are overseeing everything we do from regulating the amount of water in our toilets to the airbags in our cars, We now have safety locks on our guns, and now thanks to the new eminent domain law government officials can take our own land from us. Almost every daily activity we engage in is monitored or regulated by some government agency. If one attempts to just avoid government harassment, one finds himself in deep trouble with the law.


High taxation, with an income tax and an inheritance tax, is incompatible with a principled belief in a true Republic



5>
Immoral System


There are warning signs to all of us, Not only have we seen little resistance to the current high tax system, it has become an acceptable notion that this system is moral and is a justified requirement to finance the welfare/warfare state.


The American people don't want tax reductions. High taxes, except for only short periods of time, are incompatible with liberty and prosperity.


We will be given an opportunity in the early part of this this century to make a choice between high taxes or liberty and prosperity. I am certain of my preference. But there is such a thing as mind control, {aren't we a republic form of government, isn't that what our founding fathers called it? Or are they calling it something else today.}


Did you know there was no welfare state in 1900. But in the year 2000 we have a huge welfare state, which continues to grow each year.

The masses are not going to bite the hand that feeds them.

Not that special-interest legislation didn't exist in the 19th Century, but for the most part, it was limited and directed toward greedy interests--the most egregious example being the railroads.


The modern-day welfare state has steadily grown since the Great Depression of the 1930s.



6>
The Bowl of Pottage


The federal government is now involved in providing us with health care, houses, unemployment benefits, education, food stamps to countless millions, plus all kinds of subsidies to every conceivable special-interest group.


Welfare is now part of our culture, costing hundreds of billions of dollars every year. It is now thought to be a "right," something one is "entitled" to.


Calling it an "entitlement" makes it sound proper and respectable and not based on theft. Anyone who has a need, desire, or demand and can get the politicians' attention will get what he wants, even though it may be at the expense of someone else.


Today it is considered morally right and politically correct to promote the welfare state. Any suggestion otherwise is considered political suicide.


But wait aren't  we a republic form of government, isn't that what they call it? Or are they calling it something else.


The promoters {lawyers, dishonest judges} have dramatically reinterpreted the Constitution from the way it had been for our founding fathers



7>
Our Birthright


This nation has given It's birthright back to the monarchy known as the democracy today, Our founding fathers gave all they had to insure our great Republic was kept in check and what they feared was a democracy as much as monarchy and demanded a weak executive, a restrained court, and a handicapped legislature


This nation have given our birthright away


There are few that know and can see where all of this is headed,


If you say we are a democracy you are one of the ones that have been brain washed and led astray,


We are a nation which escaped out of a monarchy, just to end up into a democracy, which our founding fathers feared.


To know where we are headed we must know where we have been, Too many have forgotten this, and are destined to return to a government of tyranny.

A democracy is nothing more than mob rule, where fifty-one percent of the people may take away the rights of the other forty-nine. -- Thomas Jefferson


8>

The Voices from the past
What Good Fortune It is For Governments That People Do Not Think - Adolf Hitler


All Men Having Power Ought to Be Mistrusted - James Madison


America will never be destroyed from the outside. If we falter and lose our freedoms, it will be because we destroyed ourselves. -- Abraham Lincoln


If the American people ever allow private banks (the Federal Reserve Banks) to control the issue of their currency, first by inflation and then by deflation, the banks and corporations that will grow up around them will deprive the people of all property until their children wake up homeless on the continent their fathers conquered.. --Thomas Jefferson


Disobedience to tyranny is obedience to God. - Thomas Jefferson


"We are not exciting rebellion. Opposition, nay, open, avowed resistance by arms against usurpation and lawless violence, is not rebellion by the law of God or the land." -- John Adams


"I have sworn upon the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man." --Thomas Jefferson

If ever there was a holy war, it was that which saved our liberties and gave us independence. -- Thomas Jefferson

"Power is the great evil with which we are contending. We have divided power between three branches of government and erected checks and balances to prevent abuse of power. However, where is the check on the power of the judiciary? If we fail to check the power of the judiciary, I predict that we will eventually live under judicial tyranny." - Patrick Henry

Government is Best Which Governs Least - Thomas Jefferson

If we will not be governed by God, then we will be ruled by tyrants. - William Penn

Give Me Liberty Or Give Me Death - Patrick Henry

If Tyranny and Oppression Come to This Land It Will Be in the Guise of Fighting a Foreign Enemy - James Madison

That's the difference between governments and individuals. Governments don't care, individuals do. -- Mark Twain



9>
Our liberties are our Birthright


Can the liberties of a nation be thought secure when we have removed their only firm basis, a conviction in the minds of the people that these liberties are a gift of God? Indeed I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just; that His justice cannot sleep forever - Thomas Jefferson

The Means of Defense Against Foreign Danger Historically Have Become the Instruments of Tyranny at Home - James Madison

We have staked the whole future of American civilization, not upon the power of government, far from it. We have staked the future of all of our political institutions upon the capacity of mankind of self-government; upon the capacity of each and all of us to govern ourselves, to control ourselves, to sustain ourselves according to the Ten Commandments of God. - James Madison

They That Can Give Up Essential Liberty to Obtain a Little Temporary Safety Deserve Neither Liberty nor Safety - Benjamin Franklin

Our Constitution was made only for a moral and religious people. It's wholly inadequate for the government of any other [people]. - John Adams

When the Government Fears the People, There is Liberty; When the People Fear the Government, There is Tyranny - Thomas Jefferson



10>
The beginning of the end for the USA

The name "United Nations" was devised by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt and was first used in the "Declaration by United Nations" of 1 January 1942, during the Second World War, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their Governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers.

The United Nations Charter was drawn up by the representatives of 50 countries at the United Nations Conference on International Organization, which met at San Francisco from 25 April to 26 June 1945. Those delegates deliberated on the basis of proposals worked out by the representatives of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States at Dumbarton Oaks in August-October 1944. The Charter was signed on 26 June 1945 by the representatives of the 50 countries. Poland, which was not represented at the Conference, signed it later and became one of the original 51 Member States.

The United Nations officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, when the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and by a majority of other signatories. United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 October each year.


The history told about the defeat of Nazism and the founding of the United Nations in the 1940s has become distorted. A false view of the past is being used today to shape how we think about our future. The military power of the victorious wartime allies is offered as a model for running the world, while the UN’s supposed utopianism is seen as ineffective and irrelevant.

This is a travesty of the facts. We are taught that the UN began with the signing of the charter in 1945. In fact that agreement was the culmination of a military and political effort that began in 1941. Understanding the UN's wartime origins provides a much-needed reminder that the UN is not some liberal accessory but a realistic necessity.

The historical records show how Winston Churchill and Franklin D Roosevelt created the UN to win the war both militarily and politically, and to create the foundations for a lasting peace. Their first expression of Anglo-American policy was in the Atlantic charter of 1941; this included freedom from want, social security, labour rights and disarmament as well as self-determination, free trade and freedom of religion. On January 1 1942 Roosevelt and Churchill led 26 nations, including the Soviet Union and China, in a "declaration by United Nations" based on the charter. On June 14 1942 a "United Nations flag day" was held with a great parade at Buckingham Palace attended by Churchill, the royal family and the exiled leaders of occupied Europe. Local events were held all over Britain.

In the records of the war years, countless references demonstrate the UN's origin as a strategic engine of victory in the second world war. The Nazi surrender document states: "This act of military surrender is without prejudice to, and will be superseded by, any general instrument of surrender imposed by, or on behalf of, the United Nations on Germany ... " President Truman broadcast on May 8 that "General Eisenhower informs me that the forces of Germany have surrendered to the United Nations."

The United Nations was a real entity during the war, not a spin-doctored slogan offering a gullible public the promise of world peace after the conflict. The allies fought the war as the United Nations and created organisations in its name and on its foundation.

Even the unit shoulder patch of Eisenhower's Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force included a light-blue band officially described as representing the peace offered to the enslaved peoples of Europe by the United Nations.

United Nations political bodies were also created during the war. In 1943 the UN War Crimes Commission and the UN Relief and Rehabilitation Administration were created. The conferences that planned the postwar world that we know as Dumbarton Oaks and Bretton Woods were officially UN conferences. In April 1945 the UN Conference on International Organisation opened in San Francisco and went on to agree the charter we have today, which states that the "original members" of the UN include those that signed the 1942 declaration.

George W Bush and Tony Blair seek to persuade their citizens that other nations are just too intransigent to deal with in their campaign to make the world free and safe. They would have us believe that Vladimir Putin and Jacques Chirac are tougher customers than Joseph Stalin and Charles de Gaulle.

Roosevelt and Churchill did not respond to fascism with a doctrine of pre-emptive war and totalitarian neoliberalism. Quite the opposite: just three weeks after the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor they set about creating an agenda that, in modern terms, is leftwing social democracy. In doing so, they knew that hard bargaining and unpleasant compromise might be necessary. They understood that cooperation was essential to survival. Today that lesson has almost been forgotten in America and Britain.

Why has this history been lost? I have no clear answer, but can offer some suggestions. Everyone knew the UN had been created out of the ashes of the war; there was no need to labour the point. More importantly, the creation of images of competing evil empires in the cold war meant that neither right nor left wanted to remember that they fought the axis together. Nowadays journalists preparing anniversary coverage may come across the occasional reference to the UN and omit it as an oddity or a mistake.

As the 60th anniversaries of the end of the second world war and the UN charter strip away the spurious moral authority that the present US-UK alliance tries to claim from the wartime experience, we would all do well to remember Churchill's remark to his doctor during the battle of Arnhem: "United Nations is the only hope of the world".

Written by Dan Plesch

11>
My Closing Thoughts


Voice from the past, Forever lasts, On and on the words echoes in me

I shall let Thelan Paulk finish my thoughts.

A VISITOR FROM THE PAST
By Thelan Paulk (1986)

I had a dream the other night I didn't understand,
A figure walking through the mist with flintlock in his hand.

His clothes were torn and dirty as he stood there by my bed,
He took off his three-cornered hat and speaking low he said:

"We fought a revolution to secure our liberty,
We wrote the Constitution as a shield from tyranny.

For future generations this legacy we gave,
In this the land of the free and home of the brave.

The freedom we secured for you we hoped you'd always keep,
But tyrants labored endlessly while your parents were asleep.

Your freedom gone, your courage lost, you're no more than a slave,
In this, the land of the free and the home of the brave.

You have licenses to travel, and permits to own a gun,
Permits to start a business, or to build a place for one.

On land that you believe you own, you pay a yearly rent,
Although you have no voice in choosing how the money's spent.

Your children must attend a school that doesn't educate,
God's moral values can't be taught according to the State.

You read about the current news in a very biased press,
You pay a tax you do not owe to please the IRS.

Your money is no longer made of silver or of gold,
You trade your wealth for paper, so life can be controlled.

You pay for crimes that make our Nation turn from God to shame,
You've taken Satan's number as you've traded in your name.

You've given government control to those who do you harm,

So they can padlock churches and steal the family farm.

And keep our country deep in debt, put men of God in jail,
Harass your fellow countryman while corrupted courts prevail.

Your public servants don't uphold the solemn oath they've sworn,
Your daughters visit doctors so children won't be born.

Your leaders ship artillery and guns to foreign shores,
And send your sons to slaughter fighting other people's wars.

Can you regain your Freedom for which we fought and died,
Or don't you have the courage or the faith to stand with pride?

Are there no more values for which you'll fight to save,
Or do you wish your children live in fear and be a slave?

Sons of the Republic, arise and take a stand,
Defend the Constitution, the Supreme Law of the Land!

Preserve our Republic, and each God-given right,
And pray to God to keep the torch of freedom burning bright!"

As I awoke he vanished, in the mist from whence he came,
His words were true, we are not free; we have ourselves to blame.

For even now as tyrants trample each God-given right,
We only watch and tremble -- too afraid to stand and fight.

If he stood by your bedside in a dream while you're asleep,

And wonder what remains of your rights he fought to keep.

What would be your answer if he called out from the grave
"Is this still the land of the free and the home of the brave?"


Do you remeber this; I PLEDGE ALLEGIANCE TO THE FLAG OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA & TO THE REPUBLIC FOR WHICH IT STANDS, ONE NATION UNDER GOD, INDIVISIBLE WITH LIBERTY & JUSTICE FOR ALL.

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"Mr. Speaker, we are here now in chapter 11. Members of Congress are official trustees presiding over the greatest reorganization of any Bankrupt entity in world history, the U.S. Government. We are setting forth hopefully, a blueprint for our future. There are some who say it is a coroner's report that will lead to our demise."


ENINENT DOMAIN
While our parents and grandparents were having to deal with the great depression of their day a law was signed in by executive order.

Eminent domain, is unconstitutional, as stated in the Bill of Rights, The 5th Amendment of the Bill of Rights “Nor shall private property be taken for Public use, without just compensation

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A nation can survive its fools and even the ambitious. But it cannot survive treason from within. An Enemy at the gates is less formidable, for he is known, and carries his banners openly. But a traitor moves among those within the gates freely, his sly whispers rustling through the alleys, heard within the very halls of government itself. For the traitor appears no traitor, he wears their face and garments and he appeals to the baseness that lies deep in the hearts of all men. He rots the soul of a nation, he works secretly, and unknown in the night to undermine the pillars of a city, he infects the body politic so that it can no longer resist, A Murderer is less to be feared. By a Greek Philosopher,
BCE The Creed of U.S Citizens

 

 


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